Cell Organelle Structures and Functions SC.6.L.14.4 Compare and contrast the structure and function of major organelles of plant and animal cells, including cell wall, cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm, chloroplasts, mitochondria, and vacuoles. ESSENTIAL QUESTION: What organelles can only be found in plant cells and what do they do? Plant cells are the basic unit and building blocks of life in organisms of the kingdom Plantae. They are cells that have a distinct nucleus and other cellular Cell walls are made up of carbohydrates such as cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin and a complex organic polymer called lignin. Functions.Although each cell usually has one vacuole, if it has more than one, they merge together and form a bigger vacuole. Thus pushing the cytoplasm, nucleus, and other structures towards the cell wall. Vacuoles are much larger in plant cells than in animal cells. Function: Vacuoles store nutrients and waste products.